The Treaty of Fontainebleau was an agreement established in Fontainebleau, France, on 11 April 1814 between Napoleon and representatives of Austria, Russia and Prussia.
The treaty was signed in Paris on 11 April by the plenipotentiaries of both sides and ratified by Napoleon on 13 April.With this treaty, the allies ended Napoleon’s rule as emperor of the French and sent him into exile on Elba.
The agreement contained a total of 21 articles. By the most significant terms of the accord, Napoleon was stripped of his powers as ruler of the French Empire, but both Napoleon and Marie-Louise were permitted to preserve their respective titles as emperor and empress. Moreover, all of Napoleon’s successors and family members were prohibited from attaining power in France.
The treaty also established the island of Elba as a separate principality to be ruled by Napoleon. Elba’s sovereignty and flag were guaranteed recognition by foreign powers in the accord, but only France was allowed to assimilate the island.
In another tenet of the agreement, the Duchy of Parma, the Duchy of Placentia and the Duchy of Guastalla were ceded to Empress Marie-Louise. Moreover, a direct male descendant of Empress Marie-Louise would be known as the Prince of Parma, Placentia, and Guastalla.
In other parts of the treaty, Empress Josephine’s annual income was reduced to 1,000,000 francs and Napoleon had to surrender all of his estates in France to the French crown, and submit all crown jewels to France.He was permitted to take with him 400 men to serve as his personal guard.