Sichuan earthquake of 2008, also called Wenchuan earthquake or Great Wenchuan Earthquake, Chinese Wenchuan dizhen or Wenchuan Da Dizhen, massive and enormously devastating earthquake that occurred in the mountainous central region of Sichuan province in southwestern China on May 12, 2008. The epicentre of the magnitude-7.9 quake (measured as magnitude 8.0 by the Chinese) was located near the city of Dujiangyan, about 50 miles (80 km) west-northwest of Chengdu, the provincial capital, at a depth of 11.8 miles (19 km) below the surface.
The quake was caused by the collision of the Indian-Australian and Eurasian plates along the 155-mile- (249-km-) long Longmenshan Fault, a thrust fault in which the stresses produced by the northward-moving Indian-Australian plate shifted a portion of the Plateau of Tibet eastward. Compressional forces brought on by this shift sheared the ground in two locations along the fault, thrusting the ground upward by approximately 29 feet (about 9 metres) in some places. Numerous aftershocks occurred in the days, months, and years that followed, including a magnitude-5.0 event that struck Chengdu in May 2010. The Longmenshan Fault runs southwest to northeast along the eastern side of the Longmen Mountains (Longmen Shan) and separates the Plateau of Tibet from the flat Sichuan Basin.
The May 2008 quake flattened some four-fifths of the structures in the affected area. Whole villages and towns in the mountains were destroyed, and many schools collapsed. Almost 90,000 people were counted as dead or missing and presumed dead in the final official Chinese government assessment; the officially reported total killed included more than 5,300 children, the bulk of them students attending classes. In addition, nearly 375,000 people were injured by falling debris and building collapses. Hundreds of dams, including two major ones, were found to have sustained damage. Some 200 relief workers were reported to have died in mudslides in the affected area, where damming of rivers and lakes by rocks, mud, and earthquake debris made flooding a major threat until workers could open channels to drain the impounded water.
China’s government quickly deployed 130,000 soldiers and other relief workers to the stricken area, but the damage from the earthquake made many remote villages difficult to reach, and the lack of modern rescue equipment caused delays that might have contributed to the number of deaths. After a few days China asked for outside help. One week after the temblor, China declared three days of official mourning for the earthquake victims.
Millions of people were made homeless by the quake, the cost of which was estimated at $86 billion. Repair and rebuilding of housing and infrastructure in the affected areas were soon under way, though progress was slow in the remoter locations. Strong quakes again shook the region in August and September 2008, though they caused considerably less destruction and loss of life.
Several issues emerged in the aftermath of the disaster. One concerned a debate in the scientific community as to whether the large weight of water impounded by a reservoir situated near the epicentre of the quake could have helped trigger the temblor. Also, there was much discussion regarding allegations that shoddy construction was to blame for the catastrophic collapse of so many school buildings in the affected areas. Many questioned the official death toll given for children, stating that it was too low.
A magnitude-6.6 earthquake struck the region nearly five years later, on April 20, 2013. The epicentre of that quake was also located on the Longmenshan Fault, about 53 miles (85 km) south-southwest of the epicentre of the 2008 event and some 19 miles (30 km) north-northeast of the city of Ya’an. More than 200 people died and at least 13,000 were injured from falling debris and structural collapses caused by the quake.